In the clothing sector, denim is an indigo blue “evergreen.” This tough, twill fabric is normally dyed with C.I. Pigment Blue 66 and C.I. 73000 in the Colour Index, and is produced by processing undyed weft yarns with ring-dyed warp yarns. Ring dyeing is a characteristic feature of denim production. In the conventional process, the yarns are either processed as a hank, as in rope dyeing; or spread out next to each other and only the sheath is dyed, as in slasher dyeing. The dye is applied in several treatment stages. This process, which is still used in traditional denim production, is carried out nowadays using the latest machine technology, including machinery offered by Germany-based Karl Mayer Textilmaschinenfabrik GmbH.

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